THE HIGHLANDS TEA PARTY 2014
We Meet Weekly on Tuesday Evenings
LOCATION: Homers Smorgasbord.
Meetings time 6:00 pm -8:00PM
Come early enjoy a great dinner and join us,
we are non-partisan
Meeting schedule’s are subject to change please watch the
web page for changes
Tuesday Evening September 2, 2014
LIES, MONEY & CIVIL RIGHTS:
How Testing is Ruining
Up Coming Guest Speakers & Events
Sept 9, 2014 – Frank DeVarona – Muslim Take over and One World Order
Sept 30, 2014 – Ron Edwards – Mr. Edwards has a political commentary named The Edwards Notebook where he has 2-3 million listeners. He is an accomplished speaker and has spoken at many events where he has shared the stage with Dr. Ben Carson, Ann Coulter, Michelle Malkin, Dinesh D’Souza, and has been a fill in for Judge Napolitano.
Click on links to sign letters/petitions
week of September 1 – September 7, 2014
Stay current with the latest News around the Nation and the World
Click on Blue Headline for the story
NEWSMAX – While Obama Ponders ISIS Action, UK’s David Cameron Takes Charge - 09/02
While Great Britain’s Prime Minister David Cameron cut his vacation short to deal with the Islamic State (ISIS) crisis, President Obama was golfing on Martha’s Vineyard. While Cameron took action, raising Great Britain’s terror threat to “severe,” Obama told Americans “We don’t have a strategy, yet.” So, while President Obama has spent Labor Day weekend raising money for Democrats, is it any wonder why some lawmakers and political analysts, including Red State’s Erick Erickson are asking: “Can we borrow David Cameron?” Even New York Rep. Peter King on Sunday said he wishes “our president was showing the same leadership David Cameron showed.”
THE HILL – Did Brennan dodge a bullet? - 09/02
CIA Director John Brennan may have dodged a bullet over his agency’s potentially unconstitutional snooping on the Senate, but critics insist his reprieve is only temporary. Calls for the spy leader to resign after the CIA admitted that officials spied on the Senate have lost steam in recent weeks, since lawmakers left town for a five-week summer recess. November’s midterm elections and crises from Syria to Ukraine could distract Congress from forcing the director to offer a public mea culpa in the short term. But lawmakers and advocates pushing for a change at the top of the spy agency say that the issue has only been temporarily sidelined and won’t disappear for good.
FRONT PAGE – Obama’s Miserable Failure -09/02
It was always obvious what Obama’s supporters wanted. They weren’t willing to settle for a Hillary, just another politician who would punch the clock, deliver tepid speeches and push their leftist agenda.They wanted someone larger than life. A head made for Mount Rushmore and a body that would be cast in statues across the country. Speeches meant to be studied in classrooms for the next hundred years.
THE HILL – Economy no savior for Dems - 09/01
Democrats are running out of time for an economic savior. They have long predicted that an economic turnaround would be the elixir that helps them retain control of the Senate in November. But with just a handful of big economic reports left before Election Day, the economic picture is largely in place. And while the outlook is bright, voters continue to hold a dim view of their own financial prospects. “There are still a lot of families playing catch-up,” said Jared Bernstein at the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities. “It’s got to be awfully hard for the typical voter to figure out what Congress had done to help the economy move forward. It’s a lot easier to figure out what they’ve done to screw things up.”
NEWSMAX – Obama May Delay Immigration Action Until After Midterm 08/30
President Barack Obama may delay executive action on immigration until after the November midterm elections as Democrats fight to maintain control of the Senate. The Wall Street Journal and The New York Times, citing sources, reported that Obama is considering stepping back largely to avoid endangering the re-election hopes of some foundering Democrats. Back in June, after House Republicans refused to pass immigration overhaul legislation, the president said he would make changes for immigration on his own, a promise that Republicans said would mean Obama is exceeding his legal authority. Meanwhile, several Democrat senators seeking reelection in vulnerable states, including Mark Pryor of Arkansas, Kay Hagan of North Carolina, Alaska’s Mark Begich, and New Hampshire’s Jeanne Shaheen, all agree that Congress, not Obama, should address immigration.
Check out the “RED” side bars for Interesting links.
“COMMON CORE” “INFO VIDEOS” , “POLLS”, “HEADLINE NEWS & ACTION ITEMS”,”AGENDA 21″,
“LETTERS TO EDITOR” “KRISSANNE HALL”, ” A VOICE FOR FREEDOM”, and many more.
Link up to the Highlands Tea Party, Contact Jeanne: email@example.com, Join our mailing list get the latest alerts and web page updates.
The Highlands Tea Party meets each Tuesday evening 6:00 PM at Homers Smorgasbord, 1000 Sebring Square, Sebring, FL 33872
The Highlands Tea Party is a member of the following Local organizations
Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.) is singing a new tune on immigration as he eyes a possible 2016 presidential run, but it may not be enough to win over disaffected conservatives just yet.
Rubio was a leading champion of the comprehensive immigration reform bill that passed the Senate last year. But in a letter to President Obama and a series of four media interviews this week, he made clear that he now favors additional measures to secure the border before there is even talk of a pathway to legal status for those in the country illegally.
Even in the spring of 2013, when the Senate bill was moving forward, supporting the measure was a risky move for the rising star. Conservative National Review ran a cover showing Rubio laughing and standing next to liberal Democratic Sen. Chuck Schumer (N.Y.), behind the headline “Rubio’s Folly.”
After the bill passed in June of that year, Rubio plummeted in early presidential primary polls he once led and has remained in single digits. He was the runner-up in the 2013 straw poll at the Conservative Political Action Conference, but fell to 7th place with just 6 percent this year.
In October he sent signals he was starting to reposition on immigration and came out against having a conference committee to reconcile the bill he supported with any House version.
But this week, Rubio pivoted even further.
“I continue to believe our system needs to be reformed and I’ve learned in the last year that because of such an incredible distrust of the federal government no matter who’s in charge, the only way you’re going to be able to deal with this issue is by first securing the border and ensuring that illegal immigration is under control,” he told Breitbart, a conservative web site.
Dan Holler, a spokesman for Heritage Action, which opposes the Senate bill, said Rubio’s recent comments were “encouraging.”
“What Senator Rubio outlined over the course of this week really aligns with where conservatives tried to take the debate,” he said.
His past support for the Senate bill, which included a path to citizenship for those in the country illegally, still sours him to some.
“Certainly we’re pleased with…any pro-amnesty person who says ‘no amnesty,’ and so we welcome him as an ally on that,” said Roy Beck, executive director of Numbers USA, a group that seeks to reduce immigration.
Still, Beck added that “it’s hard not to feel pretty irritated with him for being the guy that really caused the Senate to pass that bill. I mean he was the main guy.”
Rubio says he still supports eventually finding a solution for dealing with people in the country illegally, but citing an “incredible distrust of the federal government,” he now says people first need to see that the border has been secured and the legal immigration system has been reformed.
“They don’t want to hear about how it’s going to happen—they want to see it happen,” he told Breitbart of those first two steps.
While the bill that passed the Senate combined these steps into one measure, it did have requirements to make sure that the border was secure before the path to legal status went forward. The bill required measures such as 700 miles of border fence, an employment verification system and additional border patrol agents to be in place before the legal status process could move forward.
A frequently asked questions page on Rubio’s website, from April 2013, states, “The security triggers are not left at the discretion of politicians with agendas. Real measurable results must be achieved, and politicians cannot override them.”
Rubio spokesman Alex Conant told The Hill that Rubio’s strategy for achieving immigration reform, not his policies, has changed.
“We’re not talking about policy changes,” he said. “We’re talking about a more realistic way of achieving policy wins.”
Liberal commentators have pointed to a speech Rubio gave in South Carolina, a key early primary state, on Monday, as evidence of a harsher tone.
Rubio was interrupted by “Dreamers,” young people who came to the U.S. illegally as children. The crowd booed the protesters, who were escorted out, and Rubio told them, “You’re doing harm to your own cause.”
It was a change from just two years ago, when Rubio asked the young protesters to stay at his speech to the Hispanic Leadership Network and called them “brave.”
Rubio told The Wall Street Journal this week the reason for the discrepancy is that he has been trying to address the problems the young immigrants are protesting and that “these groups don’t seem willing to give any consideration of that.”
Rubio’s letter to Obama last week did favorably cite “The ‘dreamers’ who graduated at the top of their class but face an uncertain future.”
“I would strongly disagree with this idea that he’s somehow unsympathetic to their plight,” Conant said.
But Rubio’s shifting positions on immigration could complicate his effort to win over Republican voters in 2016 primary.
“His strategy seems to be to avoid being put in a position to defend the Senate bill,” said Richard Quinn, a longtime Republican strategist in South Carolina, later adding the political adage, “When you’re having to explain something, you’re losing.”
Asked whether Rubio’s moves this week were to set him up for the Republican presidential primary, Conant said he would leave “political analysis” to others, but added: “The senator was well aware of the political risks of this issue when he took it on a year and a half ago. He remains committed to reform and makes no apologies.”
Texas GOP Sen. Ted Cruz, a potential 2016 presidential candidate, made clear this weekend his foreign policy strategy for dealing with the militant group Islamic State: “bomb them back to the Stone Age.”
“They want to go back and reject modernity,” he said. “Well, I think we should help them. We ought to bomb them back to the Stone Age.”
Cruz made his remarks Saturday in Dallas at a summit for Americans for Prosperity, the political arm of the billionaire GOP donors Charles and David Koch.
The influential gathering of conservatives also included speeches by a few other potential 2016 GOP White House candidates — Kentucky Sen. Rand Paul, Texas Gov. Rick Perry and Indiana Gov. Mike Pence.
Cruz also staked out his position on such domestic issues as the U.S. border-illegal immigration crisis and the Affordable Care Act.
“In the year 2017, a Republican president in the Rose Garden is going to sign a bill repealing every word of ObamaCare,” he said.
Cruz joked about inviting President Obama to the southern border to see where thousands of unaccompanied immigrant children have poured into the country. The president declined such an invitation from Perry.
“I figured out the only way there is a chance in heaven he might come (is if) I’m inviting him to come to a golf course,” Cruz said.
A crowd of more than 3,000 at a hotel ballroom serenaded him with calls of “Run Ted, Run.”
However, Cruz ignored direct questions about a presidential campaign when he met with reporters after the speech.
He told conservatives in the audience, “Each of you is here because we are part of a grassroots fire that is sweeping this country. … We are building an army.”
On Friday, Perry and Paul pounced on Obama’s “we don’t have a strategy yet” comments earlier in the week regarding the violent militant faction of Islamic State attacking cities in Iraq.
“Yesterday, the president admitted he had no strategy to deal with ISIS,” Perry said, drawing hoots and hisses from a packed convention hall. “The deepening chaos in Iraq, Syria, Gaza, and Ukraine is all the clear and compelling evidence the world needs of a president one step behind, lurching from crisis to crisis.”
Paul fired up the audience by suggesting that Obama’s lack of leadership showed he’d been on the job too long.
Republicans criticizing Obama’s foreign policy is nothing new, but there are deepening divisions within the GOP over how to move forward.
The broader debate pits those who favor the GOP’s traditional muscular foreign policy — a group that includes Perry and Florida Sen. Marco Rubio — and those, like Paul and Cruz, who prefer a smaller international footprint. The so-called isolationist approach plays well with grassroots activists and a war-weary public, but worries many Republican officials and donors who prefer an aggressive American role in world affairs.
The intra-party divisions largely weren’t much on display at the Americans for Prosperity event, but will become clearer as the crowded group of possible presidential candidates tries to distinguish themselves in the coming months.
Pence didn’t mention Obama’s comments. He told the Associated Press afterward only that “the president of the United States is the commander of chief of our armed forces. I wouldn’t want to prejudge what his military advisers counsel.”
The Associated Press contributed to this report.
Sen. Mike Lee Pleads: Abolish Common Core
Sen. Mike Lee has called on Americans to join him in the effort to abolish the federal Common Core education standards in a fundraising email for the conservative group FreedomWorks.
“As a U.S. Senator, I’ve seen the federal government make a mess of everything it touches,” the Utah Republican wrote in the email sent out Monday morning.
Vote Now: Do You Approve Or Disapprove of President Obama’s Job Performance?
“And if they’re allowed to stay, Common Core standards will be the ObamaCare of education,” he wrote. “Common Core is the DC takeover of our school system. It will dumb down standards and cheapen the education our children receive.”
Witnessing a Failed Presidency
By Alan Caruba
When we elect someone—anyone—to the office of President, it is only natural that we attribute great political skills, intellect, and judgment to that man. We want to believe we have selected someone with the ability to do what must be done in a dangerous and very complex world.
This may explain why Presidents who have presided in times of war are more highly regarded than those that have not. Washington brought the nation into being by patiently pursuing a war with Great Britain, Lincoln saw the Civil War to a successful conclusion, preserving the Union
The last century offered two world wars and several lesser ones, Korea and Vietnam. Voters put Franklin D. Roosevelt in office in 1933 and then kept him there until his death in 1945 just before the conclusion of World War Two. They had no wish to disrupt his conduct of the war with anyone else. It fell to Harry Truman to wrap up World War Two and to pursue the Korean War to repulse communist North Korea’s invasion.
The Vietnam War had its genesis in the JFK years, but it was Lyndon Johnson who committed to it with a massive influx of infantry and massive bombing, neither of which was able to deter the North Vietnamese from uniting the nation. Having lied the nation into the war LBJ concluded at the end of his first term which he had won in a landslide that he should not run again given the vast level of unhappiness with the conflict.
The failure to respond in a strong way to the Iranians who took U.S. diplomats hostage left Jimmy Carter with a single failed term in office. Neither domestically, nor in the area of foreign affairs did he demonstrate strength or much understanding.
After 9/11 George W. Bush used U.S. military strength to send a message to the world in general and al Qaeda in particular. By the end of his second term, a completely unknown young Democrat emerged as the Democratic Party candidate for President by campaigning on a promise to get out of Iraq and offering “hope and change.”
Barack Hussein Obama captured the imagination of the voters. He was black and many Americans wanted to demonstrate that an African-American could be elected President. He was relatively young, regarded as eloquent, and seemed to project a cool, self-composed approach throughout his campaign.
The only problem was that he lacked a resume beyond having been a “community organizer.” He had graduated from Harvard Law School, but all of his academic and other public records had been put under seal so they could not be examined. Twice he ran against relatively lackluster, older men who did not possess much charisma, if any.
In his first term, his “stimulus” to lift the economy out of recession was a trillion-dollar failure. By his second term, however, the singular first term “achievement” was the passage of the Affordable Patient Care Act—Obamacare. When finally ready to enroll people it instantly demonstrated technical and policy problems. Obama began to unilaterally make changes to the law even though he lacked the legal power to do so.
The war in Iraq whose conclusion he had ridden to victory in 2008 and 2012 came unraveled and the Syrian civil war in which he had resisted any involvement metastasized into a barbaric Islamic State that seized parts of Iraq and northern Syria.
Halfway through his second term, it was increasingly evident that Obama did not want to fulfill the role of the Presidency to provide leadership in times of foreign and domestic crisis.
On August 28 Gallup reported “Americans are more than twice as likely to say they “strongly disapprove” (39%) of President Barack Obama’s job performance as they are to say they “strongly approve” (17%). The percentage of Americans who strongly disapprove of Obama has increased over time, while the percentage who strongly approve has dropped by almost half.”
His passion for golf became noticeable in ways that went beyond just a bit of vacation time. The time he spent fund raising seemed to be more of a priority than dealing with Congress. Not only did he fail to develop strong political working relations with members of his own party, his churlish talk about the Republican Party began to grate on everyone.
Though no President cares much for the demands of the press, they play an essential role in a democracy. His administration went to extremes to close off access to its members and by striking out at the press in ways that turned it from one that had gone out of its way to support him in the first term to one that actively, if not openly, disliked him in the second.
One characteristic about Obama had become glaringly obvious. He lies all the time. He lies in obvious and casual ways. In politics where one’s word must be one’s bond, this is a lethal personality trait. He dismissed the many scandals of his administration as “phony.”
Given the vast implications of what is occurring in the Middle East, in Ukraine, and elsewhere around the world his response was to interrupt his golf game to give a short speech and then return to the greens. In a recent press conference he said he has “no strategy” to address the threat that ISIS represents.
What Americans have discovered is that they have twice either voted for (or against) someone with fewer skills and even less desire to do the job for which he campaigned. This lazyness combined with his radical liberal politics have finally become obvious even to his former supporters.
His statement that he had no strategy to deal with the threat of the Islamic State and that it was perhaps too soon to expect one to have been formulated has led to the conclusion that he was far less intellectually equipped to be President than many had thought.
Now he must be endured and survived.
© Alan Caruba, 2014
Pardon the French: Where the HELL are President Obama, Eric Holder, The FBI, “Reverend” Sharpton, and “Reverend”Jackson?
One Black individual shot and killed by a white policemen who was in all respects fearing for his life after having been brutally attacked by the individual moments before the shooting, becomes a national racial issue because of our President and people like Sharpton, Jackson and Eric Holder..
Any death whether black, white, brown or what ever is tragic but to make a national case out of it to push a racial issue and national divide of race is unconscionable, This is exactly what President Obama, Eric Holder and the racial mouth pieces Sharpton and Jackson are doing. With respect to President Obama it is all about Political stature to make himself look exceptional to the Black Community.
The president should not be involving himself in community issue, if he is going to do this where is he on the following 6 murders of Policeman by Black killers?
- Officer-Detective Melvin Santiago? A Jersey City police officer shot to death on July 13, 2014. Santiago was white. His killer, Lawrence Campbell, was black. Does anyone recall Obama appearing before national television and calling for justice for Officer Santiagos’ family? Does anyone recall Eric Holder rushing to Jersey City to see that justice was done?
- How about Officer Jeffrey Westerfield. Gary, Indiana police officer shot to death July 6th, 2014. Westerfield was white. Charged as his killer, Carl LeEllis Blount, Jr. was black.
- Officer Perry Renn? Indianapolis, Indiana, police officer shot to death July 5, 2014, the day before Officer Westerfield was killed. Officer Renn was white. His killer, Major Davis, was black.
- Deputy Sheriff, Vermillion Parish Allen Bares, gunned down by two men June 23, 2014 in Louisiana. Deputy Bares was white. His two charged killers, Quintlan Richard and Baylon Taylor, were black.
- Detective Charles Dinwiddie, of the Killeen (Texas) Police Department, murdered May 11th, 2014, by Marvin Lewis Guy, a black male. Officer Dinwiddie was white. Did you see anything about that on the news. Certainly, the white citizens in Killeen didn’t take to the streets to loot and burn businesses.
- Officer Kevin Jordan of the Griffin, Georgia Police Department, gunned down May 31, 2014. Officer Jordan was black. His killer, Michael Bowman, was white. This was a white man murdering a black police officer. Where was Jesse Jackson? Where was “The Reverend” Al Sharpton? Was there looting and burning on the streets of Griffin, Georgia? No. In fact, I don’t recall hearing about this one in the news, as well. Why? You can draw your own conclusions.
Over the past 60 days, there have been 6 reported deaths of police officers by gunshot in the US. Of those, five were white officers who were murdered by black men, one was a Black Officer killed by a White. Blacks complain that white officers treat black men more aggressively on the street, could there be a reason here ?
In all these cases not a single word was spoken by President Obama, Eric Holder, “Reverend” Sharpton or “Reverend” Jackson. No statement like this one made in Missouri by Holder; Attorney General Eric Holder sought to assure residents here Wednesday that the U.S. Justice Department was thoroughly probing the shooting of 18-year-old Michael Brown by a police officer. Did he make this statement to the families of the 5 slain police officers? Did he send in the FBI (12) investigate these cases? You can draw your own conclusions on that. Is there an election coming soon? Is there an agenda here?
Note: the title of “reverend ( 2.. worthy of being revered; entitled to reverence.) is used very loosely, people who preach hatred and racial divide to me are not Reverend people, and Jackson and Sharpton are not worthy of being revered!
Is the GOP ready to follow Sen. Sessions on immigration?
Please read and share “THE NRSC’S REMARKABLE IMMIGRATION STATEMENT”
Jonathan Strong of Breitbart writes that the statement from Brad Dayspring, spokesman for the National Republican Senatorial, is notable because while the law-and-order side of border security has always been a staple GOP talking point, the economic impact of increased immigration on wages is a secondary and disputed aspect.
Indeed, Dayspring’s statement (which Strong reprints in full) puts the economic impact of executive amnesty front and center. Here’s an excerpt:
The ‘Economy’ means different things to voters (affordability, security) & immigration is viewed by many as part of the overall economic equation. Executive amnesty would not only subvert the law, but depress wages, and hurt the poorest Americans most of all — including legal immigrants looking to rise into the middle class. Workers are hurting. The share of Americans in the workforce is at its lowest level in nearly 4 decades. There are 58 million working-age Americans who aren’t working. Median household income has dropped $2,000 since 2009. Wages are lower today than in 1999.
Dayspring goes on to say that the Senators (he singles out Democratic candidates) who voted with Harry Reid to block the House bills to prevent executive amnesties will be complicit in slashing wages and making it even more difficult for unemployed Americans trying to get a job to find one.
For too long, Sen. Sessions was one of the only Senators to stand up for American workers against immigration amnesty and expansion. Dayspring’s statement is an encouraging sign that segments of the Republican Party are ready to become champions of American workers as well.
Spread the word,
Published on Aug 20, 2014
Since the shooting of Michael Brown by a white policeman and the ensuing riots and looting in Ferguson, MO, Americans have been told, yet again, that there is an epidemic of crime against black people in this country. But is there really a race war, and if so, which side is actually waging it?
People & Blogs
First, I want to thank you for taking the time to go through the 1st, 4th and 2nd amendment videos. I hope you got all the fact sheets, downloaded, printed, read and starting to feel more confident about the rights enumerated in our Constitution.
Second, today is the day. You may remember that at the bottom of each video/fact sheet page that I made reference to a special “Thank You” offer that I was going to make. Well today is that day.
So until midnight on Friday, August 29th you can get my new book “Sovereign Duty”, 3 DVD set called the “Roots of Liberty” at 50% off and private access to a newly created forum.
I’m making this special offer because it is really about knowledge, emotion and community.
It’s not enough to just read the constitution. You need the historical context, connect with the 700 year history of our founding documents and then bring your knowledge & emotion in union with others
to restore liberty.
Knowledge, Emotion and Community
No one can do this on their own and the good news is that when people come together in liberty they win. Lets’ put the federal government back inside their Constitutional box where it belongs.
God Bless Us in Liberty
PS: This special offer with 50% off the 3 DVD set and private forum access will only be available until midnight Friday August 29th.
Primary day is Tuesday, August 26th. Please do your homework, check the information below and in your own area & exercise your precious right to vote. Please see all the important follow-up and testing information as well. Thank you!
FLORIDA PRIMARY INFORMATION ON COMMON CORE
BREAKING NEWS – On the eve of the primary, Governor Scott has announced plans to form an independent commission to review the standards, tests, and recently passed legislation. If discussions with staff are accurate, this will not happen until the end of the school year after Common Core is cemented in for another year. While we are waiting for details, if it was like the public comment period, it will likely be more “Lipstick on a pig”, and not be helpful to quell criticism or relieve the dangerous burden of Common Core on our children and teachers. Please see our initial analysis
and stay tuned for more as details emerge
COMMON CORE VOTING INFORMATION:
FSCCC offers the following information on the Common Core positions of candidates in these various races, which is not a complete list. These are NOT endorsements. We urge voters to examine the information and weigh candidates’ positions on other issues important to them as well:
Four Important Questions to Ask Candidates About Common Core
District 9 (Orlando) – Bonilla vs. Platt. vs.Vivaldi
Jeb Bush Endorsee Won’t Answer Yes or No Question on CCSS
District 26 (Miami) – Curbelo vs. MacDougall vs. Martinez vs. Palomares-Starbuck vs. Rivera
Only Bush Endorsee Supports Common Core of Five in CD-26 Miami Race
District 16 (Indian River) – Altman vs. Miller
Challenger Miller Supports Parental Rights While Incumbent Altman Supports National Standards in SD 16
District 30 (Fort Meyers/Naples) – Benacquisto vs. Dreikorn
Dreikorn Shows Striking Contrast Over Benacquisto on Common Core
District 74 (Sarasota) – DiNapoli vs. Gonzalez
Both men state opposition to Common Core. Activists recommend Gonzalez.
Hillsborough County –
District 2 Candidate Terry Kemple is head of FSCCC partner Community Issues Council and has been working against Common Core for over one year.
Lee County –
Incumbent Don Armstrong publicly opted his children out of high stakes testing
Okaloosa County – See board documents showing that incumbent Cindy Frakes was part of unanimous vote to adopt Race to the Top/Common Core with little to not debate.
Sarasota County and HERE – Activists in the area recommend Wolff and McLendon